() Miichi, Ken, Farouk, Omar (eds.), Southeast Asian Muslims in the era of globalization, pp. 61 – (Part of book). Download/Full Text. Open Access. In the s, discussions in circles of committed Muslims in Indonesia were enriched with the concept of ghazwul fikri (al-ghazw al-fikri, invasion of ideas). Ghazwul FIKRI updated their profile picture. April 3 ·. Ghazwul FIKRI’s photo. Like Comment. See All. Photos. Image may contain: text. Image may contain: one or.

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Ghzwul the Middle East, the concept of al-ghazw al-fikri appears to have gained currency following the Arab defeat in the Israeli-Arab war ofand to be closely associated with the search for Arab authenticity. Cirebon is known for its distinctive and rich traditions in music, dance, batik and other art forms, as well as its colourful local adaptations of Islamic practices and the wide range of syncretistic mystical movements that emerged here.

Besides the still dominant liberal Muslim voices, Islamist and fundamentalist voices were empowered and became entrenched in various institutions. Pak Dody had grown up in the early years of Indonesian Independence and belonged to the last generation that had benefited from a Dutch school education.

Al Ghazwul Fikri by Eliza Riviera Rachmawati Jasin on Prezi

In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the dominant global flows impacting on Indonesia, each supported by communities of settlers, hailed from three powerful centres: Muslims across the spectrum, from secular-minded liberals and progressives to Islamists and Salafis, have in various ways incorporated some influences of Western origin or mediated by actors in the West as well as influences traceable to the Middle East, alongside yet other influences.

In fact, they may even have been more successful in ghazwjl former abangan to their ranks than youth with a prior religious education in Muhammadiyah or NU circles but the latter are definitely represented as well.

Jabali, Fuad and Jamhari, eds. The government has done little or nothing to protect the religious freedom of these citizens and instead made gestures to accommodate radical Muslim demands; in fact, in a joint ministerial decree practically proscribed all Ahmadiyah activities. An NGO in Cirebon affiliated with the NU, Fahmina, sent activists to the village to form a protective ring around the mosque and give moral support to the villagers. The Salafi movement, on the other hand, is almost exclusively Arab-educated and its major wing depends on significant funding from a foundation based in Kuwait.


IAIN graduates in the religious bureaucracy, ghawzul the religious courts and in education have proven to be a force of moderation and reason in the conflict-ridden years following the fall of the Suharto regime. Cambridge University Press, pp. The two mainstream organizations have made it clear that they consider these transnational movements to be threats to their existence, and there are the beginnings of more assertive action in defence of the existing local forms of Islam.

Some deliberate invention of tradition was going on during my fieldwork period: Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries: There is no modern industry worth mentioning; the most 19 See the contributions by Najib Burhani and Martin van Bruinessen in: It was first adopted by Indonesian circles that were sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood or were in contact with the Rabita.

Ghazwul Fikri by Ahmad Faisal on Prezi

More overtly political and generally left-leaning ghaxwul movements had been successfully repressed in the late s, and strict new regulations prevented most organized student activity on campus, but the government allowed, and perhaps even encouraged, the cultivation of religious piety through study circles known as halqah or daurah.

Debates on the compatibility or otherwise of Islam and liberal democracy were one such issue, capable of mobilizing many, on which the PK S was strongly affirmative, while several other movements, including Hizb ut-Tahrir and the MMI, rejected liberal democracy on principle.

Martin van Bruinessen, Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Cendekiawan Islam Zaman Belanda: Membedah Jaringan Islam Jihadi di Indonesia. Recipients of these grants were to play leading parts in the Islamist and Salafi movements that flourished in semi-legality in the s and came to the surface after In sheer volume and impact, Islamist discourse now dwarfed the liberal, pluralist discourse that had been almost hegemonic during the New Order.

The discussions in the association also indicated a quite Westernized approach to Islamic issues Saidi Both men had an enormous influence on younger generations of students and Fiikri intellectuals Muzani ; Munhanif In the s, discussions in circles of committed Muslims in Indonesia were enriched with the concept of ghazwul fikri al-ghazw al-fikri, invasion of ideaswhich became a catch-all term to refer to various forms of Western cultural invasion: In the first weeks, when still trying to get my bearings in the new environment, I frequently met with a friendly elderly gentleman, who happened to live next to the guesthouse where I was staying, and who was very knowledgeable about Javanese and Sundanese culture and the spirit beliefs in which I took a special interest.



The leading nationalists of the early twentieth century had received their education in Dutch schools and had no access to Arabic texts. From the mids onwards, perceiving the radicalizing tendency among recent graduates from Bhazwul Eastern countries, the Ministry of Religious Affairs intensified academic cooperation with Western countries and sent increasing numbers of IAIN graduates to Canada, the Netherlands, Australia and Germany for postgraduate studies.

Only from the s onwards was there a significant shift to the dissemination of more strictly apolitical, Salafi literature. Politically, however, the movement is a strong supporter of the jihads of oppressed Muslims Ridwan ; van Bruinessen Suharto co-opted many of his former Islamist critics through a number of symbolic pro-Islamic gestures, and within the armed forces a faction emerged that patronized Islamist groups.

A year earlier, a similar text was published in Singapore: In their view, and that of many mainstream Muslims, one should distinguish between Islam as a religion and Arab culture; a person ghazwu, very well be a pious Muslim without adopting Arab culture.

Ghazwul fikri or Arabization? Indonesian Muslim responses to globalization

The once flourishing harbour of the capital city is a sleepy affair, as trade has been diverted away from the region. Awareness of conflicts in the Middle East — the Israeli— Palestinian conflict, Iranian—Saudi rivalries, the Afghan jihad and its aftermath — spread as more students returned from study in the Gulf or Egypt.

As has been observed elsewhere, once people break out of their geographical isolation and by trade and travel start interacting more intensively with more distant communities, the old local spirits are of little help to them and supernatural 20 The following paragraphs are based on my observations during a two-month period of field research in early and a number of shorter visits in the preceding years. Mukti Ali and Harun Nasution, who were to exert a major influence on later generations of Muslim students, were the best known among this first cohort.

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