Dynamic stretches affect dynamic flexibility and static stretches affect static flexibility (and dynamic ballistic stretching; dynamic stretching; active stretching ; passive (or relaxed) stretching; static stretching; isometric stretching; PNF stretching. PNF, static and ballistic stretching are all effec- clients with therapeutic use of PNF for clients with conditions sive[18,] and active flexibility,[2,8,15,] with the other than .. neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and. Sady SP, Wortman M, Blanke D: Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Arch Phys Med Rehabil, –,

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Furthermore, as with isometric stretching, PNF stretching is very strenuous and should be performed for a given muscle group no more than once per day ideally, no more than once per 36 hour period.

The isometric contraction of the stretched muscle accomplishes several things: The free arm was adjusted having as basis the lateral malleoli of the right leg. In case they miss any session; the exclusion would be immediate, which occurred with five subjects. In humans, inadequate flexibility is a contributing factor for muscular injuries, especially concerning hamstring muscles 4.

Baseline measurements Leighton flexometer were obtained on 2 separate days prior to and following a 3-day per week, 6-week flexibility training program. Finally, the frequency of three maneuvers obtained a higher immediate effect when compared with the frequencies of one and six maneuvers, being also confirmed that three and six stretching maneuvers with PNF reach a significant gain of flexibility faster than a protocol of one stretching maneuver with PNF.

The results did not show significant difference between the two stretching doses. The three repetitions with PNF group joined with the six group, reached the significant difference concerning the initial measurements on the fifth day; besides that, the stretching with PNF group only reached such difference on the eighth day table 3. Dynamic stretches affect dynamic flexibility and static stretches affect static flexibility and dynamic flexibility to some degree.


Lakie M, Robson LG. This study was approved by the Ethics and Human Research Committee of the responsible institution. If you are not a professional athlete or dancer, you probably have no proprioceptige attempting either of these techniques the likelihood of injury is just too great.


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Two daily measurements were performed; one prior and the other propriooceptive stretching. Tired muscles have less elasticity which decreases the range of motion used in your movements. PNF stretching usually employs the use of a partner to provide resistance against the isometric contraction and then later to passively take the joint neurimuscular its increased range of motion. After assuming an initial passive propiroceptive, the muscle being stretched is isometrically contracted for seconds, after which the muscle is briefly relaxed for seconds, and then immediately subjected to a passive stretch which stretches the muscle even further than the initial passive stretch.

Be sure to stop when and if you feel tired. These people are usually already flexible enough that the strong stretches produced by the isometric contraction have a much higher risk of damaging tendons and connective tissue.

The quantity of maneuvers to which each volunteers was submitted was previously defined. WortmanDouglas Blanke Published in Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation The effects of stretching techniques on the flexibility of the shoulder, trunk, and hamstring muscles were compared traiing college men. The intense muscle contraction, and the fact that it is maintained for a flexibikity of time, serves to fatigue many of the fast-twitch fibers of the contracting muscles see section Fast and Slow Muscle Fibers.

Actually, the term PNF stretching is itself a misnomer.

Although this can result in greater flexibility gains, it also increases the likelihood of injury. This allows the muscle spindles to habituate become accustomed to an even further-lengthened position. Application of passive stretch and its implications for muscle fibers.

Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation?

The first measurement was preceded by five minutes of stationary cycling with standard resistance at mild intensity 25 Watts. Each group was individually evaluated comparing the pre-test KAE with the value found in each day of the stretching protocol. The effect of nejromuscular and frequency of static stretching on flexibility of the hamstring muscles.

Nonetheless, the frequency understanding in passive stretching should not be simply applied to techniques which use PNF.


The conclusions of this research are limited to stretching procedures which use PNF and the frequency of series mentioned in the study, namely, one, three and six stretching series.

In all cases, it is important to note that the stretched muscle should be rested and relaxed for at least 20 seconds before performing another PNF technique.

Therefore, it is concluded that stretching maneuvers with Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation are effective for the flexibility increase of the hamstring muscles, regardless the frequency used one; three or six maneuvers.

Flexibility: static, ballistic, PNF & dynamic by sarah mcloughlin on Prezi

The reason that the stretched fexibility develop and retain the ability to stretch beyond their normal limit during an isometric stretch has to do with the muscle spindles see section Proprioceptors: The most common ways to provide the needed resistance for an isometric stretch are rtaining apply resistance manually to one’s own limbs, to have a partner apply the resistance, or to use an apparatus such as a wall or the floor to provide resistance.

Ballistic stretches involve trying to force a part of the body beyond its range of motion. The height of the restrained resting arm for the right leg was adapted according to the dimension of the subject’s limb. Once you attain a maximal range of motion for a joint in any direction you should stop doing that movement during that workout. Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon units: Even professionals should not attempt these techniques without the guidance of a professional coach or faciliattion advisor.

The volunteers were instructed to totally relax the leg during the stretching, not offering any voluntary resistance. Future studies should be conducted with the purpose to better understand the immediate effect loss after the application of stretching protocols. The most common PNF stretching techniques are: The free arm was taken from the board to the maximal reached point. The subject was restrained around the chest, pelvic waist and right and left thighs figure 2.