This article aims to present theoretical indications about the relationship that must be observed and established between technologies and students; technologies and teachers; teaching as a means to carry out this process and the role of the school in this interaction.
When it comes to technology, it is necessary to understand its concept as “a set of scientific knowledge and principles that apply to the planning, construction and use of equipment in a given type of activity” (KENSKI, 2007, p.24). ).
On the technological advance and its importance within the educational context we can cite the comment of Takahashi (2000 apud PRETTO; PINTO, 2006, p.25) who stated:
The rapidity with which the Internet has spread throughout the world has been a surprising phenomenon for everyone. Data presented in the Green Paper of the Information Society Program in Brazil show that radio took 38 years to reach an audience of 50 million viewers in the United States, while the computer took 16 years, television, 13 years, and the Internet, in only four years, reached the mark of 50 million Internet users.
In this way, we can affirm that we live in a globalized and interconnected capitalist society. This new society, like other models of society, has the capacity to socially include and exclude those who are not fit for its functioning.
As the new technologies each day have an almost indispensable function as tools for access to information, social and professional interaction, and in this relation to exclusion is aggravated when we speak of people who did not follow the evolution, but found themselves before it, among many of the situations existing in this reality, is the case of young people and adults – EJA.
The students of the EJA have a characteristic of their own that configures them as being those who did not have the opportunity to follow the formal studies at the time according to age / grade. It can still be pointed out as a characteristic point of this class of students as being those coming from the poorest layers of the population, and already inserted in some way in the labor context. In most students, contact with computers or other technologies is done in a precarious and informal way.
The absence of this contact of the EJA students with the media, in a directed way, in a relationship of teaching learning, is another factor that is added to a list of difficulties for these students in the search to broaden their social and professional relations. In this way, the teaching focused on the EJA should aim at teaching where students can appropriate this knowledge and get more chance in the interaction process.
Through education we can help develop the potential that each student has, within their possibilities and limitations. To do this, we need to practice the pedagogy of understanding against the pedagogy of intolerance, rigidity, the single thought, the devaluation of the less intelligent, the weak, problematic or “losers.” Practice the pedagogy of inclusion. (MORAN, 1997).
According to Segnini (2000) the structure of the labor market has also undergone changes: high rates of unemployment are accompanied by the growing insecurity and precariousness of the new forms of occupation. The search for a diploma is no longer a guarantee of labor insertion, the transition from student life to work life is no longer linear, and runs into large contingents of competition.
Today it is possible to indicate at least three levels of interactivity involving people and technology: “digital natives”, “digital immigrants” and “digital illiterate”. For Monteiro (2009) the first ones refer to those who are able to watch TV, listen to music, dial on the cell phone and use the notebook, all at the same time. The other digital immigrants are those who were not born in the digital age, but who are learning to deal with technology – or in some cases, even refusing to accept it, and finally digital illiterates are those totally excluded from any contact with the computer age.
Valente (1993) states that Informatics, with all its ramifications, brought the demand for the formation of a man with the capacity to adapt to change. According to this view, Dimenstein (1998, p.16) states that the digital illiterate will find no place in the labor market in a computerized society.
The good professional in the present day is defined by the ability to find and associate information, to work in group and to communicate with resourcefulness. The student who knows how to deal with unforeseen events and adapt quickly to changes, research and interpret the data will have a future.
Faced with this indisputable reality of the importance of new technologies in the teaching-learning process, mastery of them is one of the important features of the new profile of the learner and the educator. According to Sampaio and Leite (1999, p.75):
It is important the ability to deal with various technologies and interpret their language, as well as distinguish how, when and why they are important and should be used. This literacy means an initial mastery of the techniques and their languages, but it is also related to a permanent improvement exercise through daily contact with the technologies. It is related to the technical and pedagogical knowledge that the teacher must have of the technologies and their pedagogical potential.
As regards the process of teaching and learning involving young people and adults, Ireland 1 states that EJA is seen by many as a way of literacy who has had no opportunity to study in childhood or those who for some reason had to drop out of school. Fortunately, the concept has been changing and, among the great challenges of this type of education, the preparation of students for the labor market is now included – which is highlighted in these times of economic crisis: “Today we know the value of continuous learning in all phases of life, and not only during childhood and youth. “
The contact with the new technologies can favor and much to young people and adults in the process of their social reintegration and work. In this stage of contact, an agent of great importance, who plays a preponderant role that will establish this relationship, is the teacher.
But was the teacher prepared? In terms of teacher training for technologies, Ramos Ó 2 states that today there is a kind of war to this ability that boys and girls have to build the language of the world through all technology that dominates the most and best than adults. There is a conflict here that is not only of generations; is primarily of language: “We teachers have to adapt to the artifacts of technology and use them as a resource for the transformation of our worldliness.”
To what extent can students and teachers live the technological exclusion? In the words of Castell (2004, p.15):
The internet is the fabric of our lives. If information technologies are the historical equivalent of what electricity was in the industrial age, in our era we could compare the internet to the electric grid and the electric motor, given its ability to distribute the power of information across all scopes of activity human. Moreover, just as new technologies of generation and distribution of power have allowed factories and large enterprises to establish themselves as the organizational bases of industrial society, the Internet is now the technological basis of the organizational form that characterizes the Information Age: network.
According to Pereira and Caparróz, (2008, p.101).
The information society, in which we are inserted, confronts us with different terms and concepts that begin to become common in the language present in cyberspace. Speaking of exchanging e-mail, typing, surfing the internet may seem familiar to those using the World Wide Web, such as digital natives, but may have another, or even no, meaning for the digital excluded.
It is possible to classify students as natives, digital immigrants and digital illiterates. But can such a classification also apply to teachers?
We believe that yes, and if there is no adequacy in the training of teachers suitable to this reality, teaching will not be able to overcome the dichotomy of learning and teaching through dialogue of knowledge, and there will be, on the other hand, a constant repetition of the history of “Tistus “.
According to Altaé and Teruya (2005) technological advances are not accompanied by teacher training nor the levels of understanding related to the issues of the use of information technology in educator education.
Just as there is a range of multiplicity of interference factors in student learning, so does teacher learning. Tardif (2002, p.104) affirms that “professional knowledge” comes from diverse social sources (family, school, university, etc.) and is acquired in different social times: in childhood, school, vocational training, in the profession, of the career “. Finally, they are pragmatic, since the knowledges that serve as a basis for teaching are closely related to both the work and the person of the worker.
But in the case of the need to learn the use of technology, this knowledge must be acquired through formal study, either during initial training or in the form of training or extension courses.
On the new theoretical-methodological approaches of studies of the teaching knowledge, Nóvoa (1995, p.19) states that:
This new approach came in opposition to previous studies that eventually reduced the teaching profession to a set of skills and techniques, generating a crisis of teachers’ identity as a result of a separation between the professional self and the personal self.
The social context in which we are inserted no longer allows the initial formation of teachers to avoid technological development and the distance education itself, which today is another stage for the work of teachers, pedagogues, designers, analysts and other professionals. (CAPARRÓZ AND LOPES, 2008 p.61).
It is important to highlight the opinion of Nóvoa  about the importance of teachers’ participation in the use of new information and communication technologies in school. But this use should have as a central reference the teacher’s own professional knowledge. That is, it should not be installed as another “fashion” or a “magic resource”, but should instead be the object of a work of appropriation by the teacher.
This new reality forces teachers to adapt to the new paradigm of knowledge demanded by changes in the world of work. In this context, the teacher must appropriate the different languages existing in the world of the media, not only decipher the codes, but also be provided with a critical interpretation of the contents that circulate in the various media.
It is necessary for the teacher educator, the mastery of the language used by the technologies that are around him and his technological literacy. “Technological literacy can not be understood only as the mechanical use of technological resources, but must also encompass the critical domain of technological language” (SAMPAIO & LEITE 1999, 16).
In this sense, Aranha (2007, p.228) argues that:
Technology does not appear as something external, but a product of social relations, which depends on the necessity of use, and men and women use technologies according to the needs they have to mediate their relations.
According to IBGE  surveys carried out in 2007, with data published in 2009 on the profile of the EJA student, the “best work opportunities” option reached 19.4% of the reasons for enrollment. Of the 4.9 million people who attend professional qualification courses in the country in 2007, 45.5% opt for the computer course, which demonstrates the need of the market and the economy.
According to this survey, only 32.1 million Brazilians have access to the Internet, but unfortunately some of them can not access it frequently, of which 37, 2% of respondents said they did not access the Internet because of the high cost of personal computers (…) and another 20.5% said that they never used it because they do not know how to operate a computer.
Since 2002, the Federal Government through the Ministry of Communications, has developed a Digital Inclusion Program, which aims to broaden the process of universalizing Internet access. This program, which has the name GESAC (Electronic Government – Citizen Assistance Service) already reaches about 3,300 communities throughout the country, each year aiming to reach a much larger goal, so that a large public Internet connection network .
We know that our country suffers serious social inequalities, so that inequalities determine a series of exclusionary processes. In this present context, called the “Information Society”, it is possible to note that few Brazilians have access to the informative, journalistic, educational, cultural and entertainment contents that integrate the open world through the Internet (GESAC Program User Manual, 2007 , p.12).
On digital inclusion, Cesare (2007, 24) confirms that the Federal Government is as much as possible by broadening its process of “Digital Inclusion”, in this way we must guide our students about the new technologies that the school has; in addition, betting on Digital Inclusion is useful for acquiring knowledge, “[…] access to the world Internet network improves by 5.5 points in student performance.”
Imbernón (2006, p. 19) states:
There is a consensus that our profession must abandon the predominant conception in the nineteenth century of mere transmission of scholastic knowledge. The teacher can not be a mere executor of the official curriculum and education is no longer owned by the school but by the whole community. The teacher needs to take a more relational, dialogic, cultural, contextual and communitarian stance.
For Canário Matos (2010) more problematic work environments and marked by an increasing complexity ask the teachers that, in an effective and efficient way, they transmit knowledge, they promote the autonomy of the students, they build innovative methods that facilitate learning and they put into practice modes of teaching and individualized follow-up, in order to respond positively to the growing heterogeneity of school audiences. Teachers are also asked to integrate into their professional practices a full use of the potential of new information technologies.
It is neither pertinent nor fertile to question the training and professional practice of teachers without symmetrically questioning who the current school publics are, what has changed, how students construct their school experience, what their relationship with knowledge is, and what sense they attribute to their school experiences. (CANARY MATOS, 2010).
The computers were placed in schools to meet a proposal of pedagogical change, in which the main idea was that the computers help teachers in the development of knowledge of the contents. This process of inclusion of computers in schools has its limitations regarding the preparation of teachers for the use of computers in teaching practice. (COSTA, LIMA, 2008, 21).
One of the critiques for misuse of multimedia rooms in schools was elaborated by Valente (1999, p.01) which explains: “a very common approach in schools today is the use of the computer in extraclass activities, in order to have the in school, but without modifying the traditional teaching scheme “.
In quoting the question of cyberspace, we necessarily have to talk about Papert (1994), who developed the LOGO program at MIT (Massachusetts Techology Institute), with the development of a theory of education based on Piaget, known as constructivism theory, that is , a computer program that gives the student the ability to create and learn by creating and not merely reproducing formal education.
Among the infinite possibilities of the use of computers and computers in education, the teacher must be aware of his important role in not being stuck with traditional empiricist theories where learning occurs with the reproduction of the real world through the transmission of knowledge, a teaching focused on the constructivist theories of Vigotsky and Piaget, which subsidizes structured knowledge in the understanding that the subject performs between action and procedure.
One must observe and (re) think how computers in schools are being used, as teaching and reproduction machines, based merely on empiricism, or as a learning tool, based on constructivism. According to some authors such as Papert (1994) and Valente (1993), the main function of the insertion of information technology is to serve the student so that he can use it as an instrument for his personal and professional cognitive development.
In the same vein, Peixoto (2010) argues that computers in schools are still seen as tools whose scope depends on how they are used by teachers and that if appropriated according to a transmissive method, will be disseminators of a transmissive pedagogy based on the reproduction of content; If appropriate in a collaborative and interactive dynamic, they will implant an education in network, connected with the demands of the technological society.
With respect to this need to teach that new technologies are at the service of information, in a collaborative and dynamic relationship, this concept must be applied in practice. In this sense, Rocha (2002) affirms that the young and the adult want to see the immediate application of what they are learning and, at the same time, they need to be challenged to rescue their self-esteem, since their “ignorance” gives them anxiety, anguish and “inferiority complex”.
There is no doubt that the use of computers, computer labs, and multimedia rooms helps in learning, many studies have already shown positive results in this regard, but the question is how these programs are being chosen and used. These tools should be used on behalf of the student so that they can grasp their concepts and use them in their personal and professional lives with positive results intellectually and socially. In this sense it is up to the teacher to choose which forms, programs and means to use for each moment of teaching.
The choice of the computer program to be applied is the responsibility of the teacher, it is the decision of a program of exercise and practice, which is the most common and is used to train skills and review content; tutorial programs, which provide virtual texts with graphic animation, but teaches as a teacher and has limited answers, serves as a reinforcement of what has already been learned; and even simulation programs and games that can be stimulating and entertaining.
We believe that in the process of teaching learning, the new technologies must be brought to the students so that they can grasp its importance by establishing permanent learning and that this learning can contribute as a differentiating factor in the social reintegration professional.
For Levy (1999 p.34), in the 21st century, the interaction between school and cyberculture is fundamental:
In cyberculture we find a wide range of information, as well as cyberspace14, which is constantly changing. At school, the information follows the rigor of the sources. The interaction occurs when the school uses the technological resources of cyberculture and teaches students to build their knowledge, starting from their own personal experiences, books and information from cyberspace (internet).
Regarding the role of the school in the relationship with the student, we need to think and produce a school that will shape citizens capable of dealing with the technological advance, participating in it and its consequences. This capacity is forged not only through the knowledge of existing technologies but through contact with them and the critical analysis of their use and of their languages as an effective tool for learning and work.
It is therefore vital for Brazilian society that most individuals are able to operate with the new information technologies and use them to solve problems, take initiatives and communicate. […] And the ideal locus for triggering such a process is the educational system (BRAZIL / PROINFO, 1997, p.22).
In his participation in the state preparatory meeting for XI ENEJA, Campos  (2009, p. 30) highlighted the importance of conducting a reflection on the search for the implementation of a public policy for the EJA in Brazil and that the the right to education for all, as well as highlighting the importance of new technologies in today’s world which requires a new worker profile.
Research  reveals a large concentration of young unemployed, particularly in the 16-24 age bracket. As diverse as work, capital and time have been (re) signified and have exerted mutual influence with the presence of so-called information and communication technologies, which allows to affirm that society is in network (CASTELLS, 1999), and those who do not appropriate their knowledge, are separated from this new society.
Nelson Pretto (2008, 81) points out the need for qualification in the use of technologies:
The presence of simpler technologies, such as printed books, or of more advanced ones, such as networked computers, producing new realities, requires the establishment of new connections that put them in the face of the complex problems faced by education, at the risk that investments do not translate into significant changes in structural education issues.
According to Oliveira; Costa and Moreira (2001, p. 62), the use of informatics in education requires in particular a constant effort of the educator to transform the simple use of the computer in an educational approach that effectively favors the student’s knowledge process.
It is common to hear in schools that the teacher should use the computer in their classes, but these classes can not simply be a review of the subject or reading of what was already spoken in class, but rather an opportunity to seek new information on the related theme . A way that the student can realize that he can contribute with his own learning.
Guerra (2000) points out that digital technologies are not a panacea for education. Depending on the way they are chosen or used, they can either liberate or tame, expand existing problems, or create others. In this sense Martín-Barbero (2009, p.10) highlights that, currently:
[…] there is so much information that it is very difficult to know what is important. But the problem for me is not what the means will do, but what will the educational system do to train people with the capacity to be interlocutors of this environment; not a newspaper, a radio, a TV, but this information environment in which everything is mixed. There are many things to rethink radically.
For the researcher Teruya, (2006, p. 47) the media has power both to educate and to de-educate, due to its symbolic extension that reaches the subject, she states: “The media, insofar as it exerts influence on the universe of people, is an instrument with the power to teach and educate the people, but also to de-educate them. “
On the power of influence of computer science in the student, Camargo and Bellini (1995, p.11) point out that there are situations in which the student is a beginner in computerized technology, that is, little involved with the machine: “this first contact is essential for breaking down resistances, and therefore, must be done with care. It can mark the beginning of a good relationship or an incurable antipathy. “
From all of the above, we want to demonstrate the need for a continuous discussion about how the new technologies and their use is integrated into the daily life of the student and the teacher, and can and should be united to the construction of a critical, emancipatory and fixation of abilities permanent education of young people and adults in their preparation to enter the job market according to the legal provisions of LDB / 96 (Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education), which determines:
§ 2º. School education should be linked to the world of work and social practice.
The need for adaptation to change is justified by the dynamics that technological advance imposes on society. Papert (1994) considers that the most important capacity imposed by computerization is the learning capacity, so much that he calls this period of the Learning Era.
“According to this modality the computer is no longer the instrument that teaches the learner, but the tool with which the learner develops something, therefore, the learning is due to the fact that he is performing a task through the computer.” (VALENTE, 1993, p.10).
The uneasiness arising from a technological revolution, such as that made possible by the computer, is stimulating for the deepening of reflections on the construction of a restless and daring intellectual climate in the search for autonomous behavior, in which people assume increasing portions of the responsibility for “educating (RUIZ, 2004).
Aguaded-Gomez (1999) asserts that educating for the media is for education at the service of democracy, to the extent that democracy finds itself in perpetual construction and its empowerment depends crucially on the school’s ability to contrast the various modes of acquisition of knowledge to increase the sense-critic of the citizen.
We indicate here the importance of encouraging new investigations as the subject students and teachers interact in the daily practices of teaching mediated by the dialogue with ICTs, and if this relationship is realized in a collaborative and autonomous process among the participants and of these with other components of the group, pointing out clues for the need of teacher training and / or improvement of the use of such tools for teaching.
New research must be carried out in order to:
To analyze how the teaching and learning process takes place in an environment permeated by subjects (teacher and student) natives, immigrants and digital illiterates;
To identify which conceptions of education are being adopted in the teachers’ praxis in the EJA in relation to the use of the available technologies, with the purpose of reflecting on possible and necessary (re) direction of the teaching didactic activity; What environments and tools does the school subsidize and provide to teachers and students in the area of multimedia? Is it an open or controlled space?
Understand if teachers are resistant to the use of the technologies available at school, and what would be the way to overcome those difficulties pointed out by them?
Therefore, there are many questions that are still waiting for answers that can support reflection on the results. One of the main objectives of this article is to contribute to the process of conception of teaching that involves the use of technology, the formation and development of teaching knowledge in relation to the use and dissemination of knowledge of the media and the knowledge among teachers and students mediated by ICT in EJA teaching.
According to a literature review, we must have a differentiated look at the applicability of information technology, which should be seen as an instrument for learning and accessibility to information and lifelong learning.
We believe that when presenting theories and ideas, to propose discussions within the theme of the new technologies in the education of young people and adults, it is at least a way to initiate a change in the action of educating, forming, and (re) building the bases for a professional life .
It recognizes Guareschi (2005, p.
It takes this critical look at the media and its performance in society, and that the formation of the citizen should be for autonomy and criticality. The author puts the media as the “fourth power” and that the fifth power, able to overcome this media, would be citizens with knowledge.
The results of researches in this field tend to contribute to the elaboration, from the teachers, of a methodological proposal of efficient teaching of computer science applied to the EJA, so that it can avoid social exclusion and stimulate the insertion in social network of these young people in the globalized world and computerized as well as awakening teachers’ awareness of the need to provide a teaching of ethical and professional attitudes and skills in the use of these technological tools.